Don’t Close the Door on Creatine Yet • Stronger by Science



For those who requested most gymgoers to checklist the dietary supplements that really assist construct muscle, you may be assured that creatine can be on virtually everybody’s checklist, and for good motive. The truth is, a 2022 study discovered that creatine was the preferred complement amongst male bodybuilders. Dozens of dietary supplements declare that will help you construct muscle, however only a few are supported by a couple of or two longitudinal research.

Creatine has held a well-deserved spot on the checklist of efficient dietary supplements ever since 2003, when Dr. J. David Department printed an absolute monster of a meta-analysis summarizing the creatine literature to that time. It included 100 research in whole, with 33 of these research assessing the influence of creatine on measures of lean physique mass. This meta-analysis discovered that creatine had a small (ES = 0.33) however vital impact on lean physique mass.

That’s principally been the lay of the land ever since. There’s definitely been extra analysis on creatine supplementation, and there have even been a handful of newer meta-analyses summarizing the influence of creatine supplementation on particular outcomes or in particular populations. However, Department’s 20-year-old meta-analysis continues to be the paper that everybody cites to help creatine’s effectiveness at rising muscle progress.

Nevertheless, astute readers could have seen a difficulty with the final couple of paragraphs. Department’s meta-analysis regarded on the results of creatine supplementation on lean physique mass, however lean physique mass and muscle mass aren’t equivalent. Lean physique mass additionally consists of water, and creatine is understood to trigger some extent of fluid retention. So, a skeptical reader would possibly (rightfully) observe that Department’s meta-analysis suggests that creatine will increase muscle progress (since muscle is definitely a serious element of lean physique mass), nevertheless it solely gives oblique proof for that declare.

To immediately assess the influence of creatine on muscle progress, you want research that immediately assess muscle progress. So, as an alternative of research measuring lean physique mass (which could simply mirror adjustments in fluid retention), you’d must search for research measuring muscle thickness or cross-sectional space.

Surprisingly, there have been no research immediately assessing the influence of creatine on muscle progress when Department printed his meta-analysis, and there haven’t been a ton of research on the subject within the intervening years. Nevertheless, we now have sufficient research on the subject to warrant a meta-analysis, which Burke and colleagues accomplished earlier this yr.

The researchers recognized the entire research assembly these standards:

  1. The research wanted to check resistance coaching with out creatine vs. resistance coaching with supplemental creatine. Moreover, the resistance coaching intervention wanted to final at the least six weeks.
  2. The research wanted to be carried out on wholesome grownup topics.
  3. The research wanted to be printed in English-language, peer-reviewed journals.
  4. The research wanted to immediately assess muscle measurement pre- and post-training utilizing strategies like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  5. The research couldn’t present topics with extra probably anabolic elements (i.e., they wanted to check the consequences of creatine in isolation, not as part of a multi-ingredient complement).

Finally, 11 research met these inclusion standards, and had been included within the meta-analysis.

Simply to skip to the headline discovering, creatine supplementation usually elevated muscle progress, however the pooled impact measurement was (seemingly) tiny: ES = 0.11. You’d sometimes categorize that as a “trivial” impact.

From “The Results of Creatine Supplementation Mixed with Resistance Coaching on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Overview with Meta-Evaluation.” Burke et al (2023)

The general magnitude of the impact was related for all muscle tissues assessed: the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, knee flexors, and knee extensors.

From “The Results of Creatine Supplementation Mixed with Resistance Coaching on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Overview with Meta-Evaluation.” Burke et al (2023)
From “The Results of Creatine Supplementation Mixed with Resistance Coaching on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Overview with Meta-Evaluation.” Burke et al (2023)

Lastly, the impact seemed to be bigger in youthful adults (imply age: 23.5 years) than older adults (imply age: 61.6 years), and in shorter-term research (6-16 weeks) than longer-term research (52 weeks). Although, it’s value noting that these aren’t essentially impartial findings – the entire long-term research had been additionally research on older adults, and the short-term research on older adults additionally reported very small impact sizes.

From “The Results of Creatine Supplementation Mixed with Resistance Coaching on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Overview with Meta-Evaluation.” Burke et al (2023)

I’m a bit late to the occasion for discussing this meta-analysis. It was printed in April, and creatine is at all times a well-liked subject, so most people who disseminate sciency health content material have already shared their two cents. The most typical interpretation is that creatine isn’t as efficient as we’ve beforehand been led to consider: As an alternative of getting a notable impact on muscle progress, it solely has a “trivial-to-small” influence, in line with this meta-analysis. 

I utterly perceive the place that interpretation is coming from, however I additionally assume it’s a bit off base. So, although I’m effectively behind this wave of discourse, I nonetheless figured it was value weighing in.

Let’s talk about impact sizes

To elucidate the place I’m coming from, we first must take a pair steps again and talk about impact sizes. There are fairly a number of various kinds of impact sizes, however the impact sizes used within the current meta-analysis (and most meta-analyses within the area) had been standardized imply variations within the Cohen’s D household.

Standardized imply variations basically ask the query, “By what number of customary deviations did this measure change?” or “By what number of customary deviations did the adjustments in these two teams differ?”

So, when you’ve got a within-group standardized imply distinction of 0.4, that signifies that the result measure modified by 0.4 customary deviations. In different phrases, for those who had the usual response to the intervention, and also you had been completely common at the beginning of the research, you’d be 0.4 customary deviations higher than the pre-training common on the finish of the research.

Equally, when you’ve got a between-group standardized imply distinction of 0.2, that signifies that one group skilled a change that was 0.2 customary deviations bigger than the opposite group. So, if one group improved by 0.4 customary deviations, the opposite group could have improved by 0.6 customary deviations.

To place some actual numbers on it, let’s assume you will have two teams, every of whom have a pre-training bench press 1RM of 100 ± 10kg (imply ± customary deviation). Group 1 does Program A, and Group 2 does Program B. On the finish of the research, Group 1 put a median of 10kg on their bench press 1RM, and Group 2 put a median of 15kg on their bench press 1RM. So, the within-group impact sizes can be 10kg/10kg = 1.0 for Group 1, and 15kg/10kg = 1.5 for Group 2. Equally, Group 2 skilled a 5kg bigger energy enhance, so the between-group impact measurement can be 5kg/10kg = 0.5 in favor of Group 2.

I personally desire to interpret standardized imply variations actually (for no matter motive, I discover pondering in customary deviation models to be fairly intuitive), nevertheless it’s frequent observe to place labels on ranges of impact sizes to indicate the magnitude of the impact. That is the commonest set of labels you’ll see:

Impact Dimension Classifications, From Cohen (1988)
Impact Dimension Classification
0-0.19 Trivial
0.2-0.49 Small
0.5-0.79 Medium
0.8+ Giant

Nevertheless, most individuals don’t cease to ask the place these impact measurement labels got here from.

They arrive from a 1988 textbook about statistical power for psychology. The writer, Jacob Cohen, was the one who popularized magnitude-based impact sizes. The influence of his work shouldn’t be ignored, however the context of his work shouldn’t be ignored both: He was writing to different psychologists and behavioral scientists about methods to interpret psychology and behavioral science outcomes. 

Right here’s the rub: The way you interpret impact sizes is extraordinarily context-dependent. In conditions the place giant adjustments often happen, a standardized imply distinction of 1.0 could also be a reasonably small impact. Conversely, in conditions the place small adjustments can have a huge effect, a standardized imply distinction of 0.3 may very well be indicative of a really giant impact.

Simply as an example, let’s assume that, in untrained powerlifters, the common powerlifting whole (squat + bench press + deadlift) is 300 ± 30kg. Equally, let’s assume that for world-class powerlifters in a selected weight class, the common whole is 800 ± 30kg. If an untrained powerlifter and a world-class powerlifter each added 30kg to their totals over the course of a yr, would you interpret these will increase the identical means?

I doubt it (or, at minimal, I hope not). You’d anticipate the untrained powerlifter so as to add far more than 30kg to their whole over the course of a yr: A standardized imply distinction of 1.0 can be indicative of a reasonably small impact, as a result of most different untrained lifters would expertise significantly bigger adjustments. Conversely, the world-class powerlifter can be over the moon in the event that they added 30kg to their whole over the course of a yr: A standardized imply distinction of 1.0 can be indicative of a really giant impact, as a result of most different world-class lifters would expertise significantly smaller adjustments. So, a standardized imply distinction of three.0 in untrained lifters may need the identical which means as a standardized imply distinction of 0.3 in elite lifters – relying on the inhabitants, context, and final result, you’ll be able to (and will) interpret the identical standardized imply distinction in very other ways.

This isn’t a novel perception, by any means. Method again in 2004, Dr. Matthew Rhea even proposed different sets of effect sizes for energy coaching analysis primarily based on the topics’ coaching standing.

From “Figuring out the magnitude of remedy results in energy coaching analysis by means of the usage of the impact measurement.” Rhea (2004)

The truth is, the authors of the present creatine meta-analysis (I promise I haven’t forgotten that that is an article in regards to the creatine meta-analysis – it is a prolonged however vital detour) used a set of effect size interpretations designed particularly for energy and conditioning analysis. They presumably acknowledged {that a} set of impact measurement interpretation thresholds coming from the behavioral sciences weren’t splendid for resistance coaching outcomes.

From “Comparative impact measurement distributions in energy and conditioning and implications for future analysis: a meta-analysis.” Swinton (2023)
Impact Dimension Classifications, From Swinton and Murphy (2022)
Impact Dimension Classification
0-0.13 Trivial
0.14-0.28 Small
0.29-0.50 Medium
0.51+ Giant

Nevertheless, I suspect that these impact measurement thresholds are nonetheless a bit too giant for hypertrophy analysis. They had been derived from research on energy outcomes, soar top, dash instances, energy output, and agility measures – not research on hypertrophy outcomes. And, typically, measures of efficiency are merely able to rising to a far larger extent than measures of muscle measurement.

A 2022 study by Steele and colleagues documented the everyday impact sizes noticed in each energy analysis and hypertrophy analysis. You’ll be able to see these outcomes beneath.

From “Meta-Evaluation of Variation in Sport and Train Science.” Steele et al (2022)

The common change in energy noticed within the literature is related to a standardized imply distinction of 0.87. Conversely, the common enhance in muscle measurement noticed within the literature is related to a standardized imply distinction of simply 0.34. That means to me that standardized imply variations needs to be interpreted a bit otherwise for energy and hypertrophy outcomes.

A between-group distinction related to an impact measurement of 0.28 could actually be a “small” distinction within the context of energy analysis. If one group has an impact measurement of 0.73 (a little bit beneath common), and one other group has an impact measurement of 1.01 (a little bit above common), you would possibly fairly say that the distinction between teams is fairly small.

Nevertheless, within the hypertrophy analysis, a between-group distinction of 0.28 would possibly imply one group had a within-group impact of 0.20, whereas the opposite group had a within-group impact of 0.48. The between-group standardized imply distinction is identical (0.28 in each examples), however since typical adjustments are a lot smaller within the hypertrophy analysis, the relative influence of a between-group impact measurement of 0.28 is way bigger. I don’t assume most individuals would interpret a 2.4-fold distinction in hypertrophy to be a “small” distinction.

With that in thoughts, I believe we are able to proportionally scale Swinton and Murphy’s effect size classifications to make them extra related for hypertrophy analysis. The common within-group standardized imply distinction for hypertrophy outcomes (0.34) is about 39% as giant as the common within-group standardized imply distinction for energy outcomes (0.87). So, the impact measurement interpretation thresholds must also scale proportionally, until we assume that interventions designed to advertise larger hypertrophy are (comparatively) far more practical than interventions designed to advertise larger energy good points (or vice versa). If we proportionally scale these interpretation thresholds, right here’s what we get:

Tough Impact Dimension Classifications for Hypertrophy Outcomes
Impact Dimension Classification
0-0.054 Trivial
0.055-0.1 Small
0.11-0.19 Medium
0.2+ Giant

With these interpretation thresholds, the present meta-analysis would counsel that creatine has an general small-to-medium impact on muscle progress, with trivial-to-small results noticed in older adults, and medium-to-large results noticed in youthful adults.

Now, you would possibly fairly accuse me of (fairly actually) shifting the goalposts, to which I’d first reply, “Touché. Truthful critique.” Nevertheless, I’d additionally observe that each one of those goalposts are fairly arbitrary within the first place. Most impact measurement interpretations are nonetheless primarily based on one man’s strategies about methods to interpret behavioral science analysis. The interpretation thresholds utilized by the authors of the creatine meta-analysis got here from analysis on energy, energy, and agility outcomes. Is it actually so loopy to counsel that hypertrophy impact sizes needs to be graded on their very own scale? 

Principally, I’m not shifting the goalposts as a result of I’m married to any explicit interpretation of this meta-analysis. I’m shifting the goalposts as a result of I believe the unique goalposts could have been dangerous goalposts, for the explanations mentioned beforehand.

A extra literal interpretation

As talked about beforehand, I don’t actually like impact measurement classifications within the first place. I desire the direct, literal interpretation of standardized imply variations. Simply inform me what number of customary deviations one thing modified by, and I can determine for myself whether or not that’s a comparatively small or a comparatively giant change, or a comparatively small or a comparatively giant distinction between teams.

On this case, the mathematics is fairly easy. The common standardized imply distinction for within-group hypertrophy outcomes is 0.34 in train science analysis. So, measures of muscle measurement usually enhance by about 0.34 customary deviations following a coaching intervention. This meta-analysis means that creatine has an additive impact on hypertrophy, related to a standardized imply distinction of 0.11. So, when individuals take creatine, their muscle measurement will increase by an extra 0.11 customary deviations. Meaning, in actual phrases, this meta-analysis means that creatine will enable you construct muscle about 1/third quicker than you in any other case would have.

I personally don’t view that as a trivial impact. If I might select between constructing 3 kilos of muscle or 4 kilos of muscle, I’m most likely going to decide on 4 kilos of muscle. That’s not a night-and-day distinction, nevertheless it’s definitely a notable distinction.

I’ll additionally observe that I checked the within-group impact sizes within the present creatine meta-analysis to verify they tracked with the remainder of the literature. The common within-group impact measurement within the placebo teams: 0.33. In different phrases, these research dovetail properly with the remainder of the hypertrophy literature, bolstering the takeaway that creatine will increase your fee of muscle progress by roughly 1/third.

Ultimate issues

To be clear, there’s nonetheless loads of variability in that estimate. Responsiveness to creatine differs from individual to individual. Some persons are creatine non-responders. Due to this fact, logically, loads of individuals even have above-average responses to creatine (that’s the one means a constructive common impact makes any sense). So, if creatine will increase hypertrophy by roughly 1/third on common, that doesn’t essentially imply that it’ll enhance your fee of muscle progress by roughly 1/third.

This meta-analysis additionally invitations us to think about whether or not the consequences of creatine wane over time, because the impact sizes in shorter-term research had been bigger than the impact sizes in longer-term research.

I personally assume there are two extraordinarily justifiable interpretations of this discovering.

  1. The (obvious) relative results of creatine really do lower over time. Whereas direct measures of hypertrophy might be much less affected by fluid retention than measures of lean mass, creatine does seemingly enhance intramuscular water content material to some extent. So, shorter-term research may be overestimating the consequences of creatine on “precise” hypertrophy, as a result of they’re nonetheless selecting up on elevated muscular fluid content material. Over longer time scales, the variations between teams are extra reflective of the “true” impact of creatine.
  2. The obvious impact of time is definitely simply an impact of age. As famous beforehand, the entire long-term research had been research on older adults. Moreover, the shorter-term and longer-term research on older adults had broadly related findings. So, it may be the case that older adults merely expertise much less hypertrophy, which makes the nominal additive impact of creatine seem smaller, no matter research size.
Blue field = shorter-term research in older adults. Pink field = longer-term research in older adults. The common impact measurement (only a easy common of the pooled impact sizes for every research) for shorter-term research was 0.097, and the common impact measurement for longer-term research was 0.093 – virtually equivalent. This makes me skeptical that the consequences of creatine lower over time.

Bins added by SBS staff for illustrative functions. Authentic graphic from “The Results of Creatine Supplementation Mixed with Resistance Coaching on Regional Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Overview with Meta-Evaluation.” Burke et al (2023)

I’m personally snug withholding judgment on the matter till we have now some longer-term research in youthful adults to function some extent of comparability.

Total, I believe lots of people discovered this meta-analysis to be fairly stunning. They believed creatine was an efficient complement to assist with muscle progress, and had been dismayed to search out out that the impact of creatine was merely a “trivial” impact. Nevertheless, I believe this meta-analysis simply confirms what individuals have been saying about creatine for ages: Taking creatine isn’t going to double or triple your fee of muscle progress, however it should seemingly have a constructive, notable influence in your good points.

Finally, I believe the disconnect got here from the way in which most readers interpret impact sizes: taking the language used to explain the impact sizes (i.e. “trivial-to-small”) at face worth, with out pausing to mirror on what the impact measurement is actually speaking, and with out stopping to think about impact sizes contextually. A between-group impact measurement of 0.11 means one thing totally different in an space of the analysis the place within-group impact sizes of ~0.9 are typical (like energy analysis) than in an space of analysis the place within-group impact sizes of ~0.3 are typical (like hypertrophy analysis).

So, I did wish to write this text to push again in opposition to a number of the creatine doomerism I’ve seen previously few months, however I principally wished to write down this text to debate impact measurement interpretation extra broadly. Hopefully this text gave you one thing to chew on. If it helps you assume a bit extra critically about decoding impact sizes of their correct context – as an alternative of simply accepting the classification label a research places on a selected impact measurement – it should have served its function.

For extra on creatine, together with mechanisms of motion, interactions with caffeine, potential results on hair loss, and extra, it’s best to take a look at our guide on creatine supplementation.


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